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Articles on Captive Primates

This is a collection of articles on Captive Primates from JAAWS in relation to the studies of the human-animal relationship. The Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science (JAAWS) is the leading peer-reviewed journal on the science of animal welfare for veterinarians, scientists and public policy makers. It presents articles and reports on practices that demonstrably enhance the welfare of wildlife, companion animals and animals used in research, agriculture and zoos.


Use of Primates in Research: What Do We Know About Captive Strepsirrhine Primates? Gloria Fernández Lázaro, Sarah Zehr & Enrique Alonso Garcia
Costa, R., Sousa, C., & Llorente, M. (2018). Assessment of environmental enrichment for different primate species under low budget: A case study. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 1-15.

The Effect of a Feeding Schedule Change and the Provision of Forage Material on Hair Eating in a Group of Captive Baboons (Papio hamadryas sp.), Christian H. Nevill & Corrine K. Lutz, JAAWS,  Vol. 18, No. 4, 2015

A Case Study Employing Operant Conditioning to Reduce Stress of Capture for Red-Bellied Tamarins (Saguinus labiatus).  Yvonne Owen & Jonathan R. Amory.  Volume 14, Issue 2, March 2011, pages 124-137.

A Case Study of Orangutan and Siamang Behavior Within a Mixed-Species Zoo Exhibit.  Elissa L. Pearson, Joanne M. Davis & Carla A. Litchfield.  Volume 13, Issue 4, September 2010, pages 330-346.

A Case Study of Primiparous Maternal and Infant Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) Behavior.  Jennie Y. Crosby & Kristen E. Lukas.  Volume 7, Issue 3, July 2004, pages 145-162.

A Method to Determine When Active Translocation of Nonhuman Primates Is Justified.  Clara B. Jones.  Volume 2, Issue 3, July 1999, pages 229-238.

A Survey of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Selectively Logged Ngotto Forest, Central African Republic.  Thurston C. Hicks, Roger S. Fouts & Deborah H. Fouts.  Volume 12, Issue 3, June 2009, pages 165-188.

A Tail of Two Monkeys: Social Housing for Nonhuman Primates in the Research Laboratory Setting.  David Seelig.  Volume 10, Issue 1, March 2007, pages 21-30.

A Two-Choice Preference Assessment With Five Cotton-Top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).  Eduardo J. Fernandez, Nicole Dorey & Jesus Rosales-Ruiz.  Volume 7, Issue 3, July 2004, pages 163-169.

Artificial Weaning of Old World Monkeys: Benefits and Costs.  Viktor Reinhardt.  Volume 5, Issue 2, April 2002, pages 151-156.

Assessing the Value of Choice as a Reinforcer and Implications for Enhancing Primate Welfare.  Colleen McCann, Noel Perriello, Jessica Moody, Elizabeth Metzger.  Volume 16, Issue 4, October 2013, page 390.

Behavioral Abnormalities in Captive Nonhuman Primates.  Avanti Mallapur & B. C. Choudhury.  Volume 6, Issue 4, October 2003, pages 275-284.

Behavioral Responses of Silverback Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to Videos.  Margaret A. Maloney, Katherine A. Leighty, Christopher W. Kuhar & Tamara L. Bettinger.  Volume 14, Issue 2, March 2011, pages 96-108.

Bioacoustic Monitoring of Aggression in Group-Housed Rhesus Macaques.  Brenda McCowan & Ina Rommeck.  Volume 9, Issue 4, October 2006, pages 261-268.

Blood Collection Procedure of Laboratory Primates: A Neglected Variable in Biomedical Research.  Viktor Reinhardt & Annie Reinhardt.  Volume 3, Issue 4, October 2000, pages 321-333.

Cage Toys Reduce Abnormal Behavior in Individually Housed Pigtail Macaques.  Amy L. Kessel & Linda Brent.  Volume 1, Issue 3, July 1998, pages 227-234.

Cage Use and Feeding Height Preferences of Captive Common Marmosets (Callithrix j. jacchus) in Two-Tier Cages.  Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, Carole Shand & Keith Morris.  Volume 5, Issue 2, April 2002, pages 139-149.

Chimpanzees and Retirement.  Carole Noon.  Volume 2, Issue 2, April 1999, pages 141-146.

Combination Therapy Reduces Self-injurious Behavior in a Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Troglodytes): A Case Report.  Sabrina R. Bourgeois, Maribel Vazquez & Kathleen Brasky.  Volume 10, Issue 2, May 2007, pages 123-140.

Control, Choice, and Assessments of the Value of Behavioral Management to Nonhuman Primates in Captivity.  Steven J. Schapiro & Susan P. Lambeth.  Volume 10, Issue 1, March 2007, pages 39-47.

Controllability in Environmental Enrichment for Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).  Elaine N. Videan, Jo Fritz, Melanie L. Schwandt, Heather F. Smith & Sue Howell.  Volume 8, Issue 2, April 2005, pages 117-130.

Destructible Toys as Enrichment for Captive Chimpanzees.  Linda Brent & Adam Stone.  Volume 1, Issue 1, January 1998, pages 5-14.

Determining the Value of Social Companionship to Captive Tufted Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella).  Elizabeth Dettmer & Dorothy Fragaszy.  Volume 1, Issue 1, January 1998, pages 5-14.

Effect of Enclosure Size and Complexity on the Behaviors of Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).  Mary Lee A. Jensvold, Crickette M. Sanz, Roger S. Fouts & Deborah H. Fouts.  Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2001, pages 53-69.

Effects of Selected Behavioral Enrichment Devices on Behavior of Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).  Matthew B. Rooney & Jonathan Sleeman.  Volume 1, Issue 4, October 1998, pages 339-351.

Effects of Three Food Enrichment Items on the Behavior of Black Lemurs (Eulemur macaco macaco) and Ringtail Lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Henson Robinson Zoo, Springfield, Illinois.  Margaret A. Maloney, Susan T. Meiers, Jessica White & Michael A. Romano.  Volume 9, Issue 2, April 2006, pages 111-127.

Effects of Training on Stress-Related Behavior of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in Relation to Coping With Routine Husbandry Procedures.  Lois Bassett, Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, Jean McKinley & Tessa E. Smith.  Volume 6, Issue 3, July 2003, pages 221-233.

Empty Nest: A Case Study of Maternal Response to Separation From a Juvenile Offspring in a Captive Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus abelii).  Loraine R. Tarou, Meredith J. Bashaw & Terry L. Maple.  Volume 3, Issue 3, July 2000, pages 203-213.

Enhancing Nonhuman Primate Care and Welfare Through the Use of Positive Reinforcement Training.  Gail Laule & Margaret Whittaker.  Volume 10, Issue 1, March 2007, pages 31-38.

Enrichment and Primate Centers: Closing the Gap Between Research and Practice.  Kate Baker.  Volume 10, Issue 1, March 2007, pages 49-54.

Environmental Enrichment for New World Primates: Introducing Food-Irrelevant Objects and Direct and Secondary Effects.  Michael J. Renner, Adam J. Feiner, Mark G. Orr & Beth A. Delaney.  Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2000, pages 23-32.

Evaluating Paint Rollers as an Intervention for Alopecia in Monkeys in the Laboratory (Macaca nemestrina).  Erik P. Runeson, Grace H. Lee, Carolyn M. Crockett & Rita U. Bellanca.  Volume 14, Issue 2, March 2011, pages 138-149.

Flaws in Federal Regulations Pertaining to the Welfare of Primates Kept in Research Institutions.  Viktor Reinhardt.  Volume 7, Issue 4, October 2004, pages 273-276.

Functional Analysis of Aggression in a Black-and-White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia variegata variegata).  Valeri Farmer-Dougan.  Volume 17, Issue 3, July 2014, pages 282-293.

Hunting Restraint by Creoles at the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize: A Preliminary Survey.  Clara B. Jones & Jessie Young.  Volume 7, Issue 2, April 2004, pages 127-141.

Impacts of Contraception on the Social Behavior of Gorillas: Welfare Concerns.  Susan W Margulis, Sylvia Atsalis, Anna Sarfaty.  Volume 16, Issue 4, October 2013, page 389.

Improving the Welfare of Captive Macaques (Macaca sp.) Through the Use of Water as Enrichment.  James G. Robins & Corri D. Waitt.  Volume 14, Issue 1, January 2011, pages 75-84.

Legal Loophole for Subminimal Floor Area for Caged Macaques.  Viktor Reinhardt.  Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2003, pages 53-56.

Lessons in Primate Heat Tolerance: A Commentary Based on the “Human Zoo” Experience.  Carla Litchfield, Jillian Dorrian, Joanne Davis, Kurt Lushington & Drew Dawson.  Volume 14, Issue 2, March 2011, pages 162-169.

Life-Long Well Being: Applying Animal Welfare Science to Nonhuman Primates in Sanctuaries.  Linda Brent.  Volume 10, Issue 1, March 2007, pages 55-61.

Novel Environmental Enrichment May Provide a Tool for Rapid Assessment of Animal Personality: A Case Study With Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).  David M. Powell & Joseph T. Svoke.  Volume 11, Issue 4, September 2008, pages 301-318.

On the Psychological Well-Being of Chimpanzees.  Roger S. Fouts.  Volume 1, Issue 1, January 1998, pages 65-73.

Overcoming the Barriers to the Retirement of Old and New World Monkeys From Research Facilities.  Amy M. Kerwin.  Volume 9, Issue 4, October 2006, pages 337-347.

Positive Reinforcement Training As a Technique to Alter Nonhuman Primate Behavior: Quantitative Assessments of Effectiveness.  Steven J. Schapiro, Mollie A. Bloomsmith & Gail E. Laule.  Volume 6, Issue 3, July 2003, pages 175-187.

Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques.  Kate C. Baker, Mollie Bloomsmith, Kimberly Neu, Caroline Griffis, Margaret Maloney, Brooke Oettinger, Valérie A. M. Schoof & Marni Martinez.  Volume 12, Issue 3, June 2009, pages 236-252.

Possible Costs of Radio-Tracking a Young Adult Female Mantled Howler Monkey (Alouatta palliata) in Deciduous Habitat of Costa Rican Tropical Dry Forest.  Anna L. Hilpert & Clara B. Jones.  Volume 8, Issue 3, July 2005, pages 227-232.

Primate Location Preference in a Double-Tier Cage: The Effects of Illumination and Cage Height.  Evan L. MacLean, Sheila Roberts Prior, Michael L. Platt & Elizabeth M. Brannon. Volume 12, Issue 1, January 2009, pages 73-81.

Primate Training at Disney’s Animal Kingdom.  Hollie Colahan & Chris Breder.  Volume 6, Issue 3, July 2003, pages 235-246.

Project ChimpCARE: Evaluating the Care, Management, and Welfare of Privately Owned Chimpanzees in the United States.  Stephen R. Ross & Vivian M. Vreeman.  Volume 16, Issue 4, October 2013, pages 398-399,

Reaching New Heights: The Effect of an Environmentally Enhanced Outdoor Enclosure on Gibbons in a Zoo Setting.  Megan R. Anderson.  Volume 17, Issue 3, July 2014, pages 216-227,

Risk Factors and Remediation of Self-Injurious and Self-Abuse Behavior in Rhesus Macaques, Ina Rommeck.  Kristen Anderson, Allison Heagerty, Ashley Cameron & Brenda McCowan.  Volume 12, Issue 1, January 2009, pages 61-72,

Self-Biting in Caged Macaques: Cause, Effect, and Treatment.  Viktor Reinhardt & Matt Rossell.  Volume 4, Issue 4, October 2001, pages 285-294,

Self-Harm in Laboratory-Housed Primates: Where Is the Evidence That the Animal Welfare Act Amendment Has Worked?  Jonathan Balcombe, Hope Ferdowsian & Debra Durham.  Volume 14, Issue 4, October 2011, pages 361-370,

Severe Intragroup Aggressions in Captive Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).  Bianca De Filippis, Flavia Chiarotti & Augusto Vitale.  Volume 12, Issue 3, June 2009, pages 214-222,

Siamangs (Hylobates syndactylus) and White-Cheeked Gibbons (Hylobates leucogenys) Show Few Behavioral Differences Related to Zoo Attendance.  Kathleen N. Smith & Christopher W. Kuhar.  Volume 13, Issue 2, March 2010, pages 154-163,

Systematic Investigation of the Stability of Food Preferences in Captive Orangutans: Implications for Positive Reinforcement Training.  Andrea W. Clay, Mollie A. Bloomsmith, M. Jackson Marr & Terry L. Maple.  Volume 12, Issue 4, September 2009, pages 306-313,

The Care and Management of Captive Chimpanzees Workshop: Managing Social Behavior.  Stephen R. Ross & Kristen E. Lukas.  Volume 4, Issue 4, October 2001, pages 299-301,

The Choice to Access Outdoor Areas Affects the Behavior of Great Apes.  Laura M. Kurtycz, Katherine E. Wagner & Stephen R. Ross.  Volume 17, Issue 3, July 2014, pages 185-197,

The Development of an Operant Conditioning Training Program for New World Primates at the Bronx Zoo.  Gina Savastano, Amy Hanson & Colleen McCann.  Volume 6, Issue 3, July 2003, pages 247-261,

The Effect of Feeding Enrichment on the Moloch Gibbon (Hylobates Moloch).  Deborah L. Wells & Rosie M. Irwin.  Volume 12, Issue 1, January 2009, pages 21-29.

The Effect of the Captive Environment on Activity of Captive Cotton-Top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).  Angela M. Burrell & Joanne D. Altman.  Volume 9, Issue 4, October 2006, pages 269-276.

The Effects of Caretaker-Primate Relationships on Primates in the Laboratory.  Corri Waitt, Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith & Keith Morris.  Volume 5, Issue 4, October 2002, pages 309-319.

The Myth of the Aggressive Monkey.  Viktor Reinhardt.  Volume 5, Issue 4, October 2002, pages 321-330.

The Poor Contribution of Chimpanzee Experiments to Biomedical Progress.  Andrew Knight.  Volume 10, Issue 4, September 2007, pages 281-308.

The Role of Behavioral Research in the Conservation of Chimpanzees and Gorillas.  Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf.  Volume 10, Issue 1, March 2007, pages 71-78.

The Use of Positive Reinforcement Training Techniques to Enhance the Care, Management, and Welfare of Primates in the Laboratory.  Gail E. Laule, Mollie A. Bloomsmith & Steven J. Schapiro.  Volume 6, Issue 3, July 2003, pages 163-173.

The Welfare and Suitability of Primates Kept as Pets.  Carl D. Soulsbury, Graziella Iossa, Sarah Kennell & Stephen Harris.  Volume 12, Issue 1, January 2009, pages 1-20.

Training Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to Cooperate During Routine Laboratory Procedures: Ease of Training and Time Investment.  Jean McKinley, Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, Lois Bassett & Keith Morris.  Volume 6, Issue 3, July 2003, pages 209-220.

Training Nonhuman Primates to Cooperate With Scientific Procedures in Applied Biomedical Research.  Leah Scott, Peter Pearce, Sarah Fairhall, Neil Muggleton & Jeremy Smith.  Volume 6, Issue 3, July 2003, pages 199-207.

Use of Enclosure Space by Captive Lion-Tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus) Housed in Indian Zoos.  Avanti Mallapur, Natalie Waran & Anindya Sinha.  Volume 8, Issue 3, July 2005, pages 175-186.

Use of Nonhuman Primates in Entertainment in Southeast Asia.  Govindasamy Agoramoorthy & Minna J. Hsu.  Volume 8, Issue 2, April 2005, pages 141-149.

Use of Temporary and Semipermanent Enrichment Objects by Five Chimpanzees.  Crickette Sanz, Amanda Blicher, Karen Dalke, Louise Gratton-Fabbri, Tami McClure-Richards & Roger S. Fouts.  Volume 2, Issue 1, January 1999, pages 1-11.

Video preference assessment and behavioral management of single-caged Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by movie presentation.  Tadatoshi Ogura, Tetsuro Matsuzawa.  Volume 15, Issue 2, April 2012, pages 101-112.

Welfare of Apes in Captive Environments: Comments On, and By, a Specific Group of Apes.  Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Kanzi Wamba, Panbanisha Wamba & Nyota Wamba.  Volume 10, Issue 1, March 2007, pages 7-19.

Working With Rather Than Against Macaques During Blood Collection.  Viktor Reinhardt.  Volume 6, Issue 3, July 2003, pages 189-197.

Tailored Enrichment Strategies and Stereotypic Behavior in Captive Individually Housed Macaques (Macaca spp.); Tessa H. Cannon, Michael Heistermann, Shala J. Hankison, Kimberley J. Hockings & Matthew R. McLennan

Use of Primates in Research: What Do We Know About Captive Strepsirrhine Primates? Gloria Fernández Lázaro, Sarah Zehr & Enrique Alonso Garcia

 Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey; Heather Harl, Lisa Stevens, Susan W. Margulis & Jay Petersen

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